Figure Skates, Figure Skating

Using Orthotics

Figure Skating
  • What are orthotics and when should they be used?
  • What is the difference between an orthotic and a customized insole?
  • At what age or skating level do skater’s need orthotics?
  • Where is the best source to turn too when considering orthotics?
  • Will the same orthotics fit in shoes and skates?
  • How long will my orthotics last?

The age or skating level at which orthotics should be used varies. A better question to ask is whether or not a skater will benefit from them. Foot mechanics involve complex structures and positions. Consisting of 26 bones (Fig. 1), the foot is supported and controlled by ligaments, muscles, and tendons that provide the skater with powerful and precise movements. If proper positioning of these bones and joints is absent, then problems arise. The roll an orthotic plays in figure skating should never be underestimated but instead, seriously considered.

Figure Skating

The foot and ankle are the first shock absorbing mechanisms in the body. In figure skating, tremendous forces are generated through the feet, ankles, legs, knees, and spine when jumping. The landing force from a jump can generate 3-5 times a skater’s body weight. Knowing this makes it even more important to recognize potential foot problems and mal-alignment factors.

Minor problems and imbalances in the feet play a major role in skating performance due to the critical effect of foot function in maintaining precision balance while skating. If proper attention is not paid to the correct positioning of the bones in your feet and others factors, eventual irritations can lead to boney growths on the outside of the heel, arch, and on the inside of the ankle. In addition, falls become more frequent, arch and leg cramps can appear, and poor skating performance is a result.

Biomechanical and alignment problems affect over 85% of the population. Prescription orthotics is the only precise way to position and align the foot and ankle into a “neutral position”; allowing other joints to provide controlled movement in skating. As a result of both the boot and foot working together, a skater will experience quicker starts and stops, faster spins, and higher more explosive jumps.

To correctly make a prescription orthotic for a skate, a complete analysis of the foot and several numerical calculations are necessary. After performing a complete analysis and casting of the feet (Fig. 2, thru 9) the information is then sent to a lab where a trained technician will make the orthotic.

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Figure 9

In layman’s terms and for our general reference, an orthotic is an appliance used in skates to allow the muscles, tendons, and bones in the feet and lower legs to function optimally (Fig. 10). Slight imbalances in the feet that may not be harmful or even detected under normal circumstances could make a skater more vulnerable to injury from the extra stress of skating.

Figure Skating
Figure 10

Appropriately prescribed orthotics can reduce pain, not only in the feet, but also in other parts of the body, such as the knees, hips, and spine. Orthotics can also increase the stability in an unstable joint, prevent a deformed foot from developing additional problems, and improve your overall quality of life.

Orthotics can be especially beneficial to figure skaters in helping to increase endurance, performance, and strength: particularly high-level competitors who place a great deal of movement and pressure on their feet. By eliminating the need for your muscles to compensate for faint imbalances, orthotics can reduce fatigue and promote muscle function to enhance performance. When achieving enough functional correction, the foot is now aligned to give more propulsion, making skating in general more mechanically efficient. In older adult skaters who may have developed arthritis, orthotics can be particularly effective in relieving foot fatigue and discomfort.

Foot orthotics can take on various forms and are constructed of several different carbon fibers, plastics, and softer more compressible materials such as cork or poron. Orthotics are made in what’s known as three quarter or full sole and are divided into three broad categories: those that primarily change foot function, those that are mainly protective or accommodative, and those that combine both functional control and accommodate.

Orthotic devices can be rigid, semi-rigid, soft, or calibrated. Most are made from a plaster mold taken of the feet (Fig. 11), which along with the doctor’s prescription, is sent to a lab where it is fabricated accordingly. Orthotic devices made specifically for skating boots won’t necessarily fit in everyday shoes and therefore 2 pairs may be necessary in some cases.

Figure Skating
Figure 11

Rigid Orthotic Devices (Fig. 12) are designed to control foot function and are made from a firm plastic material or carbon fiber. They are mainly designed to control function in two major foot joints, which lie directly below the ankle. This type of orthotic is also used to eliminate pain in the legs, thighs, and lower back; sometimes a result of abnormal foot functions.


Figure 12

Semi-Rigid Orthotic Devices (Fig. 13) allows for greater balance of the foot while running or participating in various sport activities. By guiding the foot through proper functions, it allows the muscles and tendons to perform more efficiently. A semi-rigid orthotic is constructed from layers of soft materials which is then reinforced using slightly more rigid materials. A semi-rigid orthotic is often prescribed for athletes.


Figure 13

Soft Orthotic Devices (Fig. 14, 15) absorb shock, improve balance, and help take pressure off uncomfortable sore spots and are usually made of soft, compressible material. This type of orthotic is helpful for people with diabetes and is also effective for arthritis or deformities where there is a loss of fatty tissue on the side of the foot.

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Figure 14
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Figure 15

Calibrated Orthotic Devices (Fig. 16) factor in body weight, foot flexibility, and activity level in order to provide a custom calibrated level of support, delivering firm but comfortable control while maintaining the properties of an accommodative device. After the evaluating physician has thoroughly examined the patient's feet, he will then write up the proper prescription for the orthotics.

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Figure 16

Customized Insoles are much less detail oriented and unlike a prescription orthotic, no analysis is required. Superfeet is one good example of a customized insole (Fig. 17).

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Figure 17

The first place to start looking for advice on orthotic devices is by asking a skater currently using them. They will be able to provide you with firsthand knowledge of the process and most likely be able to give you a good reference. If nobody at the rink is using orthotics, then search on line for names and phone numbers of sports podiatrists, physical therapists, or orthotists in the immediate area. Before making an appointment however, ask what experience the doctor has in working with figure skaters.

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Lacing Boots

Figure Skating

Yes skaters; there actually is a clear cut method for lacing your skates properly. Using the proper lacing technique could be the difference between needing to buy a new pair of boots or not.

Proper Lacing Technique

  1. Always sit on a chair or bench when putting on skates (never sit on the floor).
  2. Loosen boot laces down as far as possible and pull tongue forward (Fig. 1).
  3. Place foot in boot and kick back on the heel while at the same time keeping the toe pointed upward at an angle such that the back of the leg is against the top back of the boot (Fig. 2). Once in this position, never lift up or move the foot until finished lacing boots to the top.
  4. Reach over and begin lacing; starting at the bottom, draw up any slack in the laces by pulling on them from as close to the boot as possible (Fig. 3).
  5. When the top of the boot has been reached, give a firm tug on the laces and finish tying them (Fig. 4, 5).
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By simply following the directions above, a skater will sometimes notice more room in their boots. Parents too will find it easier to determine when their child is beginning to grow out of their skates.

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Hand Hone Blade Edges

To increase blade life while maintaining edge sharpness requires learning how to hone the blade edges. Edge honing determines how long it will be before the next sharpening is required.

Honing Process

  1. Place a generous amount of honing oil on an India Oil hand stone and slide it gently along the edges of the blade (Fig. 6) using long strokes from front to back or back to front, whichever feels more natural. Note: Always maintain the stone at or about a 5 degree downward angle to the blade edge.
  2. After a few strokes, wipe the excess oil from the blade and feel the degree of edge sharpness that is once again on the blade (Fig. 7).
Figure Skating
Figure 6
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Figure 7

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Polishing Old Boots

No matter how often a skater is on the ice, when competition time arrives, the skater will always be scrambling to make their skates look clean and presentable. So just how does a skater accomplishment this seemingly impossible task within a very short period of time?

Mr. Edge’s Boot Polishing Method

White Boots

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Figure 8a

1. To prevent any polish from running down the sides of the boots, remove laces and tape around the heels, soles, and blades with masking tape. (Fig. 8a)

2. Clean boot uppers thoroughly with deglazing fluid (available for purchase at most shoe repair shops) or acetone, using a soft cloth or strong paper towel. In order to remove the heavy buildup from previous polishing attempts, use a medium grade scouring pad (Fig.9, 10).



Note: This may leave bare gray spots on the boots. In the event of any gray areas, a white leather dye must first be applied and allowed to thoroughly dry (Fig. 11).

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Figure 11

At times, a water stain may present itself on the boots as well (Fig. 12) and can be covered over by applying several coats of both leather dye and polish.

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Figure 12

3. Using a soft bristled camel, horse, or ox hair brush, apply Harlick polish (my preferred choice) evenly across boots to avoid any cross over patterns (Fig. 13).

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Figure 13

4. Let dry for 20-30 minutes and apply a second coat to any areas where the first coat didn’t completely cover. After the second coat has thoroughly dried, (1-2 hours), spray over with a white spray polish and let dry (Fig. 14). Usually about 30-45 minutes is good.

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Figure 14

Optional: If desiring to give the boots a high gloss finished look, spray a light coat of clear boot wax on them. This will dry in about 20-30 minutes.

If the boots are relatively clean and just need a touch up, try this quick method (1 hour or less):

  • Remove laces and mask off heels, soles, and blades.
  • Clean lightly with deglazing fluid or acetone.
  • Spray boots with white spray polish and let dry 15 minutes.
  • If necessary, spray again and let dry 30 minutes.
  • Spray with boot wax if desired.

Black Boots

  • To prevent any polish from running down the sides of the boots, remove laces and tape around the heels, soles, and blades with masking tape.
  • Clean boot uppers thoroughly with deglazing fluid or acetone.
  • Rub on black Kiwi polish and let dry five minutes (Fig. 15).
  • Buff boots with shoe brush or a clean soft cloth until all polish is removed (Fig. 16).
  • Spray over with either black spray polish or clear spray wax.
  • Let dry for one hour.

The above process, including drying time takes around 1-½ hours. A quick method for polishing black boots is to bring them to a shoe repair shop where they can be professionally cleaned and polished in about 15 minutes (Fig. 17).

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Figure 15
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Figure 16
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Figure 17

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Taping Boots

Time is a valuable commodity for most people and taping boots can be a very tedious and time consuming chore were it not for a few simple suggestions listed below. One way to make your boots look professionally done is by using both a narrow and wide roll of Sk8Tape.

Applying Sk8Tape

1. Clean boots using either Goo-Be-Gone or Goof-Off and let dry for 15 minutes (Fig. 1).

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Figure 1

2. Using the narrow tape, apply across the front toe area of the boot (Fig. 2).

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Figure 2

3. Apply narrow tape around the edges of the boots, coming up 2 levels high (Fig. 3a, 3b). Press the tape firmly down on the boot but do not tightly stretch the tape when wrapping it around the boot.

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Figure 3a
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Figure 3b

4. Apply the wide tape around the rest of the boot (Fig. 4) covering up the lace holes, but not the tongue. Again, do not tightly stretch the tape when wrapping it around the boot.

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Figure 4

5. Apply tape across the tongue starting from the bottom and working up to the top (Fig. 5).

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Figure 5

6. Trim off any excess tape as needed during the taping using a razor blade (Fig. 6). You can either leave your hooks covered or exposed.

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Figure 6

7. Take an awl or some other long sharp round object and punch through the lace holes from the outside in (Fig. 7).

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Figure 7

Note: If you look closely at Figures 6 and 7 you will notice 2 different shades of tan tape. This is because of the different dye lots from which each roll was made. To obtain a consistent color throughout, make sure that all the tape colors match.

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Removing Glue Residue

Removing the glue residue left on boots from skate tape is very simple and takes no time at all to do. You can either use Goo-Be-Gone or Goof-Off. Follow my instructions below and see just how easy it really is!

  • Using either Goo-Be-Gone or Goof-Off pour a generous amount on to either a cloth rag or heavy weight paper towel. Either product evaporates very quickly which is why you want to use a large amount.
  • Gently rub away any glue residue from the boots. Re-apply more solvent as needed and always use a clean area on the rag or towel.
  • Allow boots to dry for about 15 minutes before applying any new tape or polish.

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Purchasing Skates—New vs. Used

Figure Skating

When buying skates for young children it is not always necessary to purchase new ones. Keep in mind that children grow out of their skates very quickly and do not abuse them very much. More often than not parents can find a pair of used children’s skates in excellent condition.

Note: When buying skates for a young child, it is helpful to establish a time line as to when the child last changed shoe sizes. Once this is established, parents will have a good idea of just how long it will be until a new pair of skates is needed. Used skates in size (1) and below sell very quickly and are difficult to find. Larger sizes (5) and above tend to be broken down too much for a competitive skater to use, but recreational skaters on the other hand, have an easier time skating in them.

What to check for in a used skate:

  • Both sides of the boot uppers for excess creasing (Fig. 1)
  • Soles and heels for water damage and loose screws holes (Fig. 2)
  • Condition of leather on inside (cracking and dryness) (Fig. 3)
  • General overall support (firmness of the boot uppers)
  • How much life is left on the blade (Fig. 4a, 4b)
  • Is the blade appropriate for the skater's current skill level
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Figure 4a Good
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Figure 4b Worn

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Appraising Used Skates

One of the most often asked questions around the shop is “How much are my skates worth.”

No matter if it’s just boots or both blades and boots, skating parents are always curious as to how much they should sell their skates for or what the trade in value will be.

Although there is no clear cut method to determine the value of used blades and/or boots, the following suggestions should give everyone at least a good point from which to start.

  • Always know what your skates cost new (do not include sales tax or shipping charges)
  • Know how old both the blades and boots are, especially if this is the second time using the blades. Note: A blade used more than once will most likely not be in as good a condition as a one (1) year old blade and you may want to separate the boot and blade to sell separately. Regardless of the number of scratches on a blade, the more sharpening edge remaining on the blade, the greater the value. Any boots that are substantially sweat worn or have tears on the inside are of no value. Those showing extreme creasing in the ankle area also have no value. Depending on the condition of the boot or blade, if not equal, one will bring down the value of the other if sold together.
  • Anything you can do to make the skates look more presentable (new laces, fresh polish, re-finish the soles and heels, having the skates sharpened), will result in a higher return upon selling them
  • Keep in mind that skaters in larger metropolitan areas such as New York, Chicago, or LA are able to charge and receive more for their skates, while those in less populated areas like Wisconsin, Michigan, or Kentucky are less likely to pay a premium for used skates.

Determining the Value of Used Blades and/or Boots:

  • First, determine if you are going to sell the blade and boot together or if you will be separating them.
  • Take them to a dealer and ask what the trade in value would be toward another pair of skates; assuming that they take skates on trade. Since you will most likely be purchasing another pair of new skates from the same dealer ask if you can bring them back at a later date to trade in if you’re unable to sell them.
  • Take the total cost of the blades and/or boots and cut it in half.
  • If replacing laces, etc. add the amount you spend on laces or any other work you are having done, to the price after having already cut it in half of what you originally paid for them. If selling them as is, deduct 10% more after having cut the price in half.
  • Determine in your own mind if you would pay the same price for whatever it is you are going to sell to someone else.
  • Adjust your final price up or down accordingly. If someone makes you a counter offer, remember what the dealer would have given you for your skates without you having to put any work into them. If the offer is below that of the dealers, tell the buyer and quote them the trade in price from the dealer. Most likely you’ll get at least what the dealer would have given you on a trade.

Note: When trading in used skates, you could receive anywhere from 30% to 50% less than what you could sell them for yourself. In some cases the dealer may decide to re-finish the entire skate before reselling them and charge double of what he had paid for them. The amount of time put into re-finishing a pair of skates can amount to a few hours of his time, and no one should feel they have been cheated by the dealer.

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Here at Geppetto’s we always offer the option to our customers to refurbish any used skates we sell………if needed.

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New Technology

Figure Skating

Over the years Mr. Edge has always been on the lookout for new products and technology. On this page skaters can find out what’s new in the industry; products, technology, and other relevant news as well.

If you are a manufacturer and would like to share any news about new products or technology that your company is working on and would like to share it with the skating public, you can e-mail Mr. Edge direct at: askmredge@aol.com

Blades

Figure Skating

Six years ago skate blades took a quantum leap forward when Paramount Sk8S introduced hi-wear resistant 420 and 440 stainless steel blades into the marketplace. Housed in lightweight aluminum, Paramount SK8S became the lightest weight blades on the market, leaving all the other blade manufacturers stunned in disbelief. Why? Quite simply because blade maker’s choose to ignore changes in manufacturing technology, never expecting that there might be a new start-up company waiting for just the right time to put this new technology to the test.

Not knowing what to expect from such lightweight blades, coaches were very hesitant at first to endorse such a unique product with all its claims seeming too good to be true……..fast forward to the present and let’s take a look at what everyone has discovered about Paramount SK8S lightweight blades:

  • Greater and longer edge bite
  • More speed with less effort
  • Greater height on jumps
  • Faster spins
  • Less sharpening required
  • Greater accuracy of the blade profile
  • Vast array of colors to coordinate with skating outfits
  • Less chipping along the blade edges
  • Choice of radius profile and toe pick……….Paramount can take any of the top 3 radius profiles; Gold Seal, Pattern 99, or Phantom and place it on any of their blades
Figure Skating

Is there anything else I might have left out as to the advantages of these blades? Perhaps not except to say that shortly afterwards other manufacturers have come out with lightweight blades as well. Jackson/Ultima has their Matrix lightweight blade line which is hot on the heels of Paramount. No matter which lightweight blade you may choose, the advantages are many with almost downside.

 

Ice Maintenance

The Ice Man

By Mark E. Melone

Most people rarely give much thought too, or understand how the ice they skate on is made. In this first, in a series of articles, on ice installation I will explain and illustrate for you how the entire process is done. This is how to take a bare rink floor like the one below.

Ice Rink
Figure 1

and construct it into the floor that everyone sees as this

Ice Rink
Figure 2

First, remove all dirt and debris from the floor surface. This can be very easily be done by a team of 5-6 men with brooms sweeping the floor from one end to the other, or a two-man team using a floor scrubber.

Next is to bring the floor down to temperature. When started, the compressors need to be brought up in stages to avoid overloading and causing any damage to the systems. Next is to bring the floor temperature to a maximum of 16 degrees before painting; 14 degrees is even better.

After the floor is down to the desired temperature, the next step is to lightly spray the entire floor with a light coating of water. The water will freeze almost instantly and I would recommend spraying twice, laying a paper thin glaze of ice over the entire floor.

The next step is to apply high quality white base ice paint; Jet Ice paint would be my recommendation. The white paint comes as a powder, and will need to be mixed with water and applied using a sprayer; shown below.

Ice Rink
Figure 3

It is recommended to spray 3 to 4 coats of white ice paint over the entire floor surface. When successfully completed, your surface should like the one in the picture below.

Ice Rink
Figure 4

After the paint has been applied, once again lightly spray water on the surface, sealing in the paint. It is recommended this be done 3-4 times to protect the paint. Never shoot hard streams of water on the ice paint as this will force the paint up, causing imperfections in the ice.

Well, that’s about all the time and space I have for this article, but come back soon to learn how the lines, circles and logos are laid out, and painted in.

Mark E. Melone
Aka: The Ice Man

Questions for Mark can be directed to: gcsordmem2@aol.com please don’t be shy, Mark will be happy to answer any questions you may have in future articles.

The Ice Man Part 2

By Mark E. Melone

Now that the entire rink floor has been painted white, and “sealed in” with a few light coats of water, it is now time to lay out your lines, circles, face-off dots, and logos.

First, start out with the standard hockey lines and circles. The blue, center, and goal lines are marked out using string or yarn stretched from side to side to line up with the markings on the side boards. The face-off circles are drawn using a cable to spec size, and the dots, hash marks and goal creases drawn out using a template, as shown below:

Ice Rink
Figure 5
Ice Rink
Figure 6

Now it’s time to get your liquid colored paints and start painting, free-hand. This takes a fairly steady hand and with practice you will get better over time. The center and blue lines are painted 1 foot wide, while all red circles, hash marks and goal lines are 2 inches wide.

Ice Rink
Figure 7
Ice Rink
Figure 8
Ice Rink
Figure 9

After your lines, circles, dots and goal creases are painted on; seal all the painted areas with light sprays of cold water.

Now comes time to lay out your logos. The logos used here are “stencil type”. They come as a large sheet that you lay out to the desired location on the ice. Mark them in using chalk and a broom to spread the chalk into the logo as seen below:

Ice Rink
Figure 10
Ice Rink
Figure 11

After the logos are set out, it’s time to start painting them in.

Ice Rink
Figure 12
Ice Rink
Figure 13
Ice Rink
Figure 14

Again, as your logos are painted in, seal in the paint using a light spray of cold water. After all your painted areas are well sealed, get the hose out and start building in the ice. Begin by using a fairly light spray over the entire rink surface. After 5-6 layers, spray on the water a bit heavier.

Continue building ice in this manner until you reach your desired thickness: approximately 1 ¼ to 1 ¾ inches. At this point, raise the ice temperature to 18 degrees and finish laying water with the Zamboni.

When completed as seen below, lace up your skates, and get out there and enjoy the benefits of all your hard work!

Ice Rink
Figure 15

Now that the ice is down, enjoy!

The next series will be about how to keep ice in good condition with proper ice making techniques and routine ice maintenance.

Mark E. Melone
Aka: The Ice Man

Questions for Mark can be directed to: gcsordmem2@aol.com please don’t be shy, Mark will be happy to answer any questions you may have in future articles.

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Preventing Boot and Foot Odor

Figure Skating

One of the most common problems skaters and everyone in general are faced with is foot, shoe, and skate boot odor. Some might argue as to where the odor came from first: wearing your boots or shoes for too long or just having stinky feet in general.

Although everyone’s feet do sweat, the amount secreted by the sweat glands varies for each individual. Add to this bacterium and dead skin cells, which are also released during the sweating process and now you, have a great recipe for stinky, smelly boots and feet. 

Take heart though for there are several things you can do to help reduce or eliminate altogether the odor from your boots and feet. Try any or all of the suggestions below and see if any of them work for you………..

  • Wash feet daily with an antibacterial soap. Scrub feet thoroughly using a soft brush to remove the dead skin cells. Also scrub between your toes as well.
  • Completely dry feet after washing. Use a hair dryer if necessary. Apply foot specific antiperspirants or antibacterial gels to your feet to control moisture and bacterial growth. Antifungal powder can also be applied to help prevent athlete’s foot (see your personal physician for recommendations).  
  • Wear absorbent cotton socks rather than nylon socks, which don’t absorb sweat very well. Change your socks at least daily and twice a day if necessary.
  • During your daily routine, wear shoes that breathe: sandals or those made from mesh or canvas. Bacteria love warm moist dark places in which to grow and these types of shoes help to prevent bacterial growth.
  • After your day is over, remove the insoles from both your shoes and skates and allow them to air out. 24-36 hours is a good drying time. Also loosen up the laces on your skates and pull your tongue forward to allow the inside of your boots to dry.
  • Dryer sheets such as Bounce or any other brand. Just tear them off and place them in your shoes or skate boots.

Well folks, there you have it…………enjoy and good luck with those little stinker’s!

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The History of Figure Skating



Whether you’re a competitive skater or just learning how to ice skate, knowing the history of figure skating is essential to understanding the sport’s rules!

The Beginning

Although ice skating has been a popular sport for hundreds of years, figure skating dates back to the late 1700’s in Britain, where skaters performed "compulsory figures", carving specific figures into the ice. Although modern figure skating is named for this antiquated practice, today’s choreographed programs bear little resemblance to the formal routines performed back then. Figure skating as we know it can be traced (pun intended) only back to the 1860s, when an American skater and ballet dancer, Jackson Haines, set his routine to music, melding traditional ice skating with ballet steps.

Haines' take on figure skating was not well received in the US, and he left the States to try his luck in Vienna, where his method – known as the "International Style" – took off, prompting a series of skating championships and leagues to be formed in the 1890s. At first, the only skaters who competed were men – a far cry from today’s skating field, which is brimming with talented ladies. In 1902, the first woman to compete in the World Championship, Madge Syers, took home second place.

Olympic Inclusion

In the Early 1900’s, figure skating had become a more mainstream sport, with Olympic inclusion beginning in 1908. During this time period American involvement in the sport began increasing. The U.S. Figure Skating Association, now known as U.S. Figure Skating, came together in 1921, incorporating qualification standards for competition.

Throughout the 1920’s and 30’s, Norwegian skater Sonja Henie played a large role in figure skating, influencing both women’s skating and the crossover between skating and show business. A three-time Olympic gold medalist and 10-time World Champion, Henie dominated the figure skating scene for more than a decade. Infamous for wearing a short pleated skirt and white boots on the ice, Henie is credited for creating the modern ladies’ figure skating dress.

Modern Icons and Events

Despite skatings increased popularity in the last century, the sport has seen some low points as well – particularly in 1961, when the entire U.S. Olympic team died in a plane crash, forcing the Americans into a rebuilding period and helping propel the Soviet Union to the forefront of the sport.

At the same time, the widespread use of TV and video has made figure skating more of a spectator sport than ever before. Until the 1960s, up to 60 percent of a skater’s score would come from their performance of figures, with the freestyle program taking a backseat. However, figures don’t make for particularly entertaining TV and because freestyle skating better showcases a skater’s athleticism, grace and creativity, the International Skating Union progressively decreased the importance of figures from 1968 on, eliminating them altogether in 1990.

Today figure skating is one of the most-watched Olympic sports and is surging in popularity throughout Asia. This popularity is bringing a new set of elite skaters to the forefront and bringing the history of figure skating to a brand-new audience.

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